Lifeboat requirements as per LSA Code
4.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFEBOATS
4.4.1 Construction Of Lifeboats
4.4.2 Carrying Capacity Of Lifeboats
4.4.5 Lifeboat Freeboard And Stability
4.4.1 CONSTRUCTION OF LIFEBOATS
220.127.116.11 All lifeboats shall be properly constructed and shall be of such form and proportions that they have ample stability in a seaway and sufficient freeboard when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment. All lifeboats shall have rigid hulls and shall be capable of maintaining positive stability when in an upright position in calm water and loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment and holed in any one location below the waterline, assuming no loss of buoyancy material and no other damage.
18.104.22.168 Each lifeboat shall be fitted with a certificate of approval, endorsed by the Administration, containing at least the following items:
manufacturer's name and address;
lifeboat model and serial number;
month and year of manufacture;
number of persons the lifeboat is approved to carry; and
the approval information required under paragraph 22.214.171.124.
The certifying organization shall provide the lifeboat with a certificate of approval which, in addition to the above items, specifies:
number of the certificate of approval;
material of hull construction, in such detail as to ensure that compatibility problems in the repair should not occur;
total mass fully equipped and fully manned; and
statement of approval as to sections 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, or 4.9.
126.96.36.199 All lifeboats shall be of sufficient strength to:
enable them to be safely launched into the water when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment, and
be capable of being launched and towed when the ship is making headway at a speed of 5 knots in calm water.
188.8.131.52 Hulls and rigid covers shall be fire-retardant or non-combustible.
184.108.40.206 Seating shall be provided on thwarts, benches, or fixed chairs which are constructed so as to be capable of supporting:
a static load equivalent to the number of persons each weighing 100 kg for which spaces are provided in compliance with the requirements of paragraph 220.127.116.11.2;
a load of 100 kg in any single seat location when a lifeboat to be launched by falls is dropped into the water from a height of at least 3 m; and
a load of 100 kg in any single seat location when a free-fall lifeboat is launched from a height of at least 1.3 times its free-fall certification height.
18.104.22.168 Except for free-fall lifeboats, each lifeboat to be launched by falls shall be of sufficient strength to withstand a load, without residual deflection on the removal of that load:
in the case of boats with metal hulls, 1.25 times the total mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment; or
in the case of other boats, twice the total mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.
22.214.171.124 Except for free-fall lifeboats, each lifeboat to be launched by falls shall be of sufficient strength to withstand, when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with, where applicable, skates or fenders in position, a lateral impact against the ship's side at an impact velocity of at least 3.5 m/s and also a drop into the water from a height of at least 3 m.
126.96.36.199 The vertical distance between the floor surface and the interior of the enclosure or canopy over 50% of the floor area shall be:
not less than 1.3 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate nine persons or less;
not less than 1.7 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate 24 persons or more; and
not less than the distance as determined by linear interpolation between 1.3 m and 1.7 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate between nine and 24 persons.
4.4.2 CARRYING CAPACITY OF LIFEBOATS
188.8.131.52 No lifeboat shall be approved to accommodate more than 150 persons.
184.108.40.206 The number of persons which a lifeboat to be launched by falls shall be permitted to accommodate shall be equal to the lesser of:
the number of persons having an average mass of 75 kg, all wearing lifejackets, that can be seated in a normal position without interfering with the means of propulsion or the operation of any of the lifeboat’s equipment; or
the number of spaces that can be provided on the seating arrangements in accordance with figure 1 below. The shapes may be overlapped as shown, provided footrests are fitted and there is sufficient room for legs and the vertical separation between the upper and lower seat is not less than 350 mm.
220.127.116.11 Each seating position shall be clearly indicated in the lifeboat.
4.4.3 ACCESS INTO LIFEBOATS
18.104.22.168 Every passenger ship lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be rapidly boarded by its full complement of persons. Rapid disembarkation shall also be possible.
22.214.171.124 Every cargo ship lifeboat shall be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full complement of persons in not more than 3 min from the time the instruction to board is given. Rapid disembarkation shall also be possible.
126.96.36.199 Lifeboats shall have a boarding ladder that can be used at any boarding entrance of the lifeboat to enable persons in the water to board the lifeboat. The lowest step of the ladder shall be not less than 0.4 m below the lifeboat's light waterline.
188.8.131.52 The lifeboat shall be so arranged that helpless people can be brought on board either from the sea or on stretchers.
184.108.40.206 All surfaces on which persons might walk shall have a non-skid finish.
4.4.4 LIFEBOAT BUOYANCY
All lifeboats shall have inherent buoyancy or shall be fitted with inherently buoyant material which shall not be adversely affected by seawater, oil, or oil products, sufficient to float the lifeboat with all its equipment on board when flooded and open to the sea. Additional inherently buoyant material, equal to 280 N of buoyant force per person shall be provided for the number of persons the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate. Buoyant material, unless in addition to that required above, shall not be installed eternal to the hull of the lifeboat.
4.4.5 LIFEBOAT FREEBOARD AND STABILITY
220.127.116.11 All lifeboats shall be stable and have a positive GM value when loaded with 50% of the number of persons the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate in their normal positions to one side of the centreline.
18.104.22.168 Under the condition of loading in paragraph 22.214.171.124:
each lifeboat with side openings near the gunwale shall have a freeboard, measured from the waterline to the lowest opening through which the lifeboat may become flooded, of at least 1.5% of the lifeboat's length or 100 mm, whichever is the greater; and
each lifeboat without side openings near the gunwale shall not exceed an angle of heel of 20Degree and shall have a freeboard, measured from the waterline to the lowest opening through which the lifeboat may become flooded, of at least 1.5% of the lifeboat's length or 100 mm, whichever is the greater.
4.4.6 LIFEBOAT PROPULSION
126.96.36.199 Every lifeboat shall be powered by a compression ignition engine. No engine shall be used for any lifeboat if its fuel has a flashpoint of 43°C or less (closed cup test).
188.8.131.52 The engine shall be provided with either a manual starting system or a power starting system with two independent rechargeable energy sources. Any necessary starting aids shall also be provided. The engine starting systems and starting aids shall start the engine at an ambient temperature of-15°C within 2 min of commencing the start procedure unless, in the opinion of the Administration having regard to the particular voyages in which the ship carrying the lifeboat is constantly engaged, a different temperature is appropriate. The stating systems shall not be impeded by the engine casing, seating, or other obstructions.
184.108.40.206 The engine shall be capable of operating for not less than 5 min after starting from cold with the lifeboat out of the water.
220.127.116.11 The engine shall be capable of operating when the lifeboat is flooded up to the centreline of the crankshaft.
18.104.22.168 The propeller shafting shall be so arranged that the propeller can be disengaged from the engine. Provision shall be made for ahead and astern propulsion of the lifeboat.
22.214.171.124 The exhaust pipe shall be so arranged as to prevent water from entering the engine in normal operation.
126.96.36.199 All lifeboats shall be designed with due regard to the safety of persons in the water and to the possibility of damage to the propulsion system by floating debris.
188.8.131.52 The speed of a lifeboat when proceeding ahead in calm water, when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with all engine powered auxiliary equipment in operation, shall be at least 6 knots and at least 2 knots when towing a 25-person liferaft loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment or its equivalent. Sufficient fuel, suitable for use throughout the temperature range expected in the area in which the ship operates, shall be provided to run the fully loaded lifeboat at 6 knots for a period of not less than 24 h.
184.108.40.206 The lifeboat engine, transmission, and engine accessories shall be enclosed in a fire-retardant casing or other suitable arrangements providing similar protection. Such arrangements shall also protect persons from coming into accidental contact with hot or moving parts and protect the engine from exposure to weather and sea. Adequate means shall be provided to reduce the engine noise so that a shouted order can be heard. Starter batteries shall be provided with casings which form a watertight enclosure around the bottom and sides of the batteries. The battery casings shall have a tight fitting top which provides for necessary gas venting.
220.127.116.11 The lifeboat engine and accessories shall be designed to limit electromagnetic emissions so that engine operation does not interfere with the operation of radio life-saving appliances used in the lifeboat
18.104.22.168 Means shall be provided for recharging all engine starting, radio, and searchlight batteries. Radio batteries shall not be used to provide power for engine starting. Means shall be provided for recharging lifeboat batteries from the ship’s power supply at a supply voltage not exceeding 50 V which can be disconnected at the lifeboat embarkation station, or by means of a solar battery charger.
22.214.171.124 Water-resistant instructions for starting and operating the engine shall be provided and mounted in a conspicuous place near the engine stating controls.
4.4.7 LIFEBOAT FITTINGS
126.96.36.199 All lifeboats except free-fall lifeboats shall be provided with at least one drain valve fitted near the lowest point in the hull, which shall automatically open to drain water from the hull when the lifeboat is not waterborne and shall automatically close to prevent entry of water when the lifeboat is waterborne. Each drain valve shall be provided with a cap or plug to close the valve, which shall be attached to the lifeboat by a lanyard, a chain, or other suitable means. Drain valves shall be readily accessible from inside the lifeboat and their position shall be clearly indicated.
188.8.131.52 All lifeboats shall be provided with a rudder and tiller. When a wheel or other remote steering mechanism is also provided the tiller shall be capable of controlling the rudder in case of failure of the steering mechanism. The rudder shall be permanently attached to the lifeboat. The tiller shall be permanently installed on, or linked to, the rudder stock; however, if the lifeboat has a remote steering mechanism, the tiller may be removable and securely stowed near the rudder stock. The rudder and tiller shall be so arranged as not to be damaged by the operation of the release mechanism or the propeller.
184.108.40.206 Except in the vicinity of the rudder and propeller, suitable handholds shall be provided or a buoyant lifeline shall be becketed around the outside of the lifeboat above the waterline and within reach of a person in the water.
220.127.116.11 Lifeboats which are not self-righting when capsized shall have suitable handholds on the underside of the hull to enable persons to cling to the lifeboat. The handholds shall be fastened to the lifeboat in such a way that, when subjected to an impact sufficient to cause them to break away from the lifeboat, they break away without damaging the lifeboat.
18.104.22.168 All lifeboats shall be fitted with sufficient watertight lockers or compartments to provide for the storage of the small items of equipment, water, and provisions required by paragraph
4.4.8. The lifeboat shall be equipped with a means for collecting rainwater, and in addition, if required by the Administration a means for producing drinking water from seawater with a manually powered desalinator. The desalinator must not be dependent upon solar heat, nor on chemicals other than seawater. Means shall be provided for the storage of collected water.
22.214.171.124 Every lifeboat to be launched by a fall or falls, except a free-fall lifeboat, shall be fitted with a release mechanism complying with the following requirements subject to paragraph .5 below:
the mechanism shall be so arranged that all hooks are released simultaneously;
the mechanism shall have two release capabilities as follows:
2.1 a normal release capability which will release the lifeboat when it is waterborne or when there is no load on the hooks; and
2.2 an on-load release capability that will release the lifeboat with a load on the hooks. This release shall be so arranged as to release the lifeboat under any conditions of loading from no load with the lifeboat waterborne to a load of 1.1 times the total mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment. This release capability shall be adequately protected against accidental or premature use. Adequate protection shall include special mechanical protection not normally required for offload release, in addition to a danger sign. To prevent an accidental release during recovery of the boat, the mechanical protection (interlock) should only engage when the release mechanism is properly and completely reset. To prevent a premature on-load release, on-load operation of the release mechanism should require a deliberate and sustained action by the operator. The release mechanism shall be so designed that crew members in the lifeboat can clearly observe when the release mechanism is properly and completely reset and ready for lifting. Clear operating instructions should be provided with a suitably worded warning notice;
the release control shall be clearly marked in a colour that contrasts with its surroundings;
the fixed structural connections of the release mechanism in the lifeboat shall be designed with a calculated factor of safety of 6 based on the ultimate strength of the materials used, assuming the mass of the lifeboat is equally distributed between the falls; and
where a single fall and hook system is used for launching a lifeboat or rescue boat in combination with a suitable painter, the requirements of paragraph 126.96.36.199.2 need not be applicable; in such an arrangement a single capability to release the lifeboat or rescue boat, only when it is fully waterborne, will be adequate.
188.8.131.52 Every lifeboat shall be fitted with a device to secure a painter near its bow. The device shall be such that the lifeboat does not exhibit unsafe or unstable characteristics when being towed by the ship making headway at speeds up to 5 knots in calm water. Except for free-fall lifeboats, the painter securing device shall include a release device to enable the painter to be released from inside the lifeboat, with the ship making headway at speeds up to 5 knots in calm water.
184.108.40.206 Every lifeboat which is fitted with a fixed two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus with an antenna which is separately mounted shall be provided with arrangements for siting and securing the antenna effectively in its operating position.
220.127.116.11 Lifeboats intended for launching down the side of a ship shall have skates and fenders as necessary to facilitate launching and prevent damage to the lifeboat.
18.104.22.168 A manually controlled lamp shall be fitted. The light shall be white and be capable of operating continuously for at least 12 h with a luminous intensity of not less than 4.3 cd in all directions of the upper hemisphere. However, if the light is a flashing light it shall flash at a rate of not less than 50 flashes and not more than 70 flashes per min for the 12 h operating period with an equivalent effective luminous intensity.
22.214.171.124 A manually controlled lamp or source of light shall be fitted inside the lifeboat to provide illumination for not less than 12 h to permit reading of survival and equipment instructions; however, oil lamps shall not be permitted for this purpose.
126.96.36.199 Every lifeboat shall be so arranged that an adequate view forward, aft, and to both sides is provided from the control and steering position for safe launching and manoeuvring.
4.4.8 LIFEBOAT EQUIPMENT
All items of lifeboat equipment, whether required by this paragraph or elsewhere in section 4.4, shall be secured within the lifeboat by lashings, storage lockers or compartments, storage in brackets or similar mounting arrangements, or other suitable means. However, in the case of a lifeboat to be launched by falls the boat-hooks shall be kept free for fending off purposes. The equipment shall be secured in such a manner as not to interfere with any abandonment procedures. All items of lifeboat equipment shall be as small and of as little mass as possible and shall be packed in a suitable and compact form. Except where otherwise stated, the normal equipment of every lifeboat shall consist of:
except for free-fall lifeboats, sufficient buoyant oars to make headway in calm seas. Thole pins, crutches, or equivalent arrangements shall be provided for each oar provided. Thole pins or crutches shall be attached to the boat by lanyards or chains,
a buoyant bailer and two buckets;
a survival manual*;(Check resolution A.657(16) pdf given below)
an operational compass which is luminous or provided with suitable means of illumination. In a totally enclosed lifeboat, the compass shall be permanently fitted at the steering position; in any other lifeboat, it shall be provided with a binnacle if necessary to protect it from the weather, and suitable mounting arrangements;
a sea-anchor of adequate size fitted with a shock-resistant hawser which provides a firm hand grip when wet. The strength of the sea-anchor, hawser, and tripping line if fitted shall be adequate for all sea conditions;
two efficient painters of a length equal to not less than twice the distance from the stowage position of the lifeboat to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition or 15 m, whichever is the greater. On lifeboats to be launched by free-fall launching, both painters shall be stowed near the bow ready for use. On other lifeboats, one painter attached to the release device required by paragraph 188.8.131.52 shall be placed at the forward end of the lifeboat and the other shall be firmly secured at or near the bow of the lifeboat ready for use;
two hatchets, one at each end of the lifeboat,
watertight receptacles containing a total of 3 l of freshwater for each person the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate, of which either 1 l per person may be replaced by a desalting apparatus capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in 2 days, or 2 l per person may be replaced by a manually powered reverse osmosis desalinator as described in paragraph 184.108.40.206 capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in 2 days;
a rustproof dipper with lanyard;
a rustproof graduated drinking vessel;
a food ration as described in paragraph 220.127.116.11.18 totaling not less than 10,000 kJ for each person the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate; these rations shall be kept in airtight packaging and be stowed in a watertight container;
four rocket parachute flares complying with the requirements of section 3.1;
six hand flares complying with the requirements of section 3.2;
two buoyant smoke signals complying with the requirements of section 3.3;
one waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signaling together with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb in a waterproof container;
one daylight signaling mirror with instructions for its use for signaling to ships and aircraft;
one copy of the life-saving signals prescribed by regulation V/16 on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container;
one whistle or equivalent sound signal;
a first-aid outfit in a waterproof case capable of being closed tightly after use;
anti-seasickness medicine sufficient for at least 48 h and one seasickness bag for each person;
a jack-knife to be kept attached to the boat by a lanyard;
three tin openers;
two buoyant rescue quoits, attached to not less than 30 m of buoyant line;
if the lifeboat is not automatically self-bailing, a manual pump suitable for effective bailing;
one set of fishing tackle;
sufficient tools for minor adjustments to the engine and its accessories;
portable fire-extinguishing equipment of an approved type suitable for extinguishing oil fires; *(Check resolution A.602(15) given below)
a searchlight with a horizontal and vertical sector of at least 6o and a measured luminous intensity of 2500 cd which can work continuously for not less than 3 h;
an efficient radar reflector, unless a survival craft radar transponder is stowed in the lifeboat;
thermal protective aids complying with the requirements of section 2.5 sufficient for 10% of the number of persons the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate or two, whichever is the greater; and
in the case of ships engaged on voyages of such a nature and duration that, in the opinion of the Administration, the items specified in paragraphs 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 are unnecessary, the Administration may allow these items to be dispensed with.
4.4.9 LIFEBOAT MARKINGS
126.96.36.199 The number of persons for which the lifeboat is approved shall be clearly marked on it in clear permanent characters.
188.8.131.52 The name and port of registry of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs shall be marked on each side of the lifeboat's bow in block capitals of the Roman alphabet.
184.108.40.206 Means of identifying the ship to which the lifeboat belongs and the number of the lifeboat shall be marked in such a way that they are visible from above.